The market of making confectionaries (ψιλικα ), like many other markets, has altered considerably in the last few years. Although the standard formulas have undergone minor adjustments, the production innovations have transformed substantially (this uses especially to the techniques of creating small products and also floor tiles, as well as their product packaging).
At the beginning of this phase, it appears appropriate to state just these modifications, however more on those later related to particular dishes.
Different groups of confectionery items need specific molding techniques to make sure that they can be covered and also packaged in the most ideal means available for sale. Possibly the most successful advancement was the pastry bar. These bars allow you to use affordable techniques of production, packaging as well as display at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were obvious renovations in the packaging – both in the materials utilized and in the securing methods. The majority of the bars in order to make certain lengthy shelf life, to protect against insect damages and also contamination call for safety packaging. We think about these consider different chapters.
We have actually currently thought about the production of chocolate, and for that reason it is clear that chocolate as well as facility glazes have a mostly fatty basis, their dampness web content is extremely low (generally less than 1%), and also the ingredients are not in liquid option.
In lots of confectionery procedures, the liquifying ability of sugar (sucrose) is considered independently or in combination with various other sugars, such as glucose syrup (corn syrup) and invert sugar. There are 2 primary groups of sugar confectionery products: a) products in which sugar is entirely dissolved, and b) items in which sugar is partly liquified, and partly present in the form of small solid crystals put on hold in solution. These products might be changed with other ingredients (for example, milk as well as fats). The initial team includes hard candy, tough as well as soft milk desserts, toffee as well as most jelly sweets. The second team includes items such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows and nougat with a pronounced fine-crystalline framework.
Summary confectionery production innovations
Below we will see that all the selection of textures acquired is a result of using various technological procedures as well as formulas, every one of which call for special techniques for the formation of private products. Here we look at basic modern technology problems, and also see their details uses in other sections of this publication.
Smearing and cutting
The equipment is furnished with cooled down rolls, which allow you to feed the item straight from the gadget, where it is prepared, to home plate developing devices. After molding as well as lamination, the plates are fed to an air conditioning gadget, and afterwards to conventional reducing devices as well as spreaders. After that the items are glazed.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is possibly the earliest approach of producing bars (ceramic tiles) and individual items from plastic items such as fudge, nougat as well as numerous pastes. A confectionery item in a proper plastic state, established by its dampness, fat material or temperature, is first fed to the rolls to obtain a plate of the needed thickness. This plate is then fed to cutting devices to produce large strips, which are then cut into narrow floor tiles or bars. Currently, the warm product is fed to cooled rolls, enabling to get multilayer plates. Home plates are continuously cut into strips that go through the (” spreading maker)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or little pieces. An example of such a process is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This method is utilized for the production of sweets, fondant and jelly sweets, some types of milk candies and also fudge, marshmallows as well as various other items that can be acquired in liquid kind.
Some items in liquid form might be formed at a temperature level of about 150 ° C in a steel mold whose surface is covered with a “lube”.
Pomadnye, želejnye candy, maršmellou.
These items are normally cast into cells formed in starch (see listed below the area “Fondant coverings”). A a lot more current development is the automatic rainfall and extraction of fondant coverings and a few other confectionery products using metal molds (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), along with the precipitation of sugar and toffee right into silicone mold and mildews (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky material that has distinct residential or commercial properties and is resistant to relatively heats, regular for the production of sugar confectionery.
This technique uses virtually solely to candy caramel and some kinds of toffee. The usual flavored candies, sugary foods with a filler and “toffee” are made.
The manufacturing concept is to cool the made syrup under regulated conditions till it gets to a ductile state. In this state, the item is transformed into a type of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the ended up items (normally of a certain form or with a pattern) are gotten from it. The resulting products are immediately sent out to the air conditioning cupboard and wrapping equipment.
To obtain some types of caramel as well as crunchy candies, a variant of this technique is utilized, in which the harness gotten in a comparable way is fed to a cutting-wrapping machine, where with the help of high-speed circular knives, little pieces are reduced from it that come to the wrapping device.
Extrusion and also molding bars.
The principle of extrusion, carried out in the production of numerous non-food items, has been effectively used in the confectionery market. The application of this process to the manufacturing of different products– from soft materials such as marshmallows and also fondant sweets to very plastic nougat and milk chocolates– is described in  In this situation, the material based on extrusion is fed to the outlet nozzles with the help of several rolls or augers. The nozzle opening profile determines the shape of the end product, and many extruders are furnished with a variety of nozzles that produce harnesses that can be cut into bars or small items. In fig. 19.2 shows numerous rolls for extruders, and fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder cross section with a mechanism for cutting off small pieces from the strands. In fig. 19.4 reveals the style of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of chewing periodontal as well as chewing candy.
The design of the NID bar extruder is somewhat different. The feeding is carried out by grooved rollers in the same way as in various other extruders, but the material to be developed is fed to a second profile roller. The profiled surface of the roll is coated with fluoroplastic to guarantee easy separation of the material and also is utilized to form benches right into the called for form. The pins aid remove the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is possible to make multi-layer bars in which two layers are squeezed out at the same time, or bars with a body from another confectionery item. Extrusion functions well with other continuous manufacturing as well as glazing approaches.
When extrusion confectionery must observe particular precautions.
Temperature. The extrusion temperature is of fundamental significance, particularly when it comes to milk sweet and also nougat, the uniformity of which is extremely depending on temperature level. Little variations in temperature can result in big changes in extrusion pressure. For soft milk sweets, a temperature of 35 to 38 ° C is generally made use of, however much depends on the sort of product, as well as the precise temperature.
Excursion problems need to be figured out empirically. Reduced temperatures as well as high pressures create knockout of extruder safety plugs.
Separation of fat … If fat separates during extrusion, this is a sign of inadequate emulsification. Renovation is attained when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is consisted of in the formula.
Destruction after extrusion … After extrusion, some products shed their shape, and also the strip, which is nearly round in cross-section, after a short time on the strip might become visibly flatter. This is due to several reasons:.
too expensive a dampness content;.
It was not emulsified fat and might be as well soft;.
the healthy protein of any type of milk active ingredient is not correctly spread;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline framework has created or has actually been destroyed by too much mixing after crystal development. This issue can be extremely subtle, as well as in constant fudge production, its look depends on the moment the crystallizing lipstick is added prior to extrusion. It is possible to identify the optimum conditions for a specific tools just experimentally. Firms concentrating on the production of extrusion devices have carried out a big quantity of research in the design of makers for the extrusion of confectionery products of numerous uniformities. For some products – such as gummies and chewing gum tissue – the roll extruder is giving way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These technologies are defined in various other sections of guide.
The concept of panning is currently defined in Phase 5. There are two sorts of sugar rolling – tough and loosened. With hard knurling, successive layers of powdered sugar and also syrup are built up on the wanted body (as an example, nuts) as well as dried with cozy air passing away in between the applied layers. Loosened knurling is carried out in a comparable means, however making use of cold modern technology. Soft shells are used (for instance, pasta, jelly, soft milk filling), as well as the coating is made of sugar (or sugar) syrup and powdered sugar. After reaching the desired size as well as weight of the finishing, the sweets are partially dried out and covered with glaze. The process is completely mechanized, including loading and also unloading the storage tanks, automated spraying of syrups (or delicious chocolate), as well as control of drying out or cooling air to the storage tanks.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, glucose or corn syrup and invert sugar is usually denoted in English by the word “creme” (cream), yet some standard items use the choice “lotion”, as well as in various nations it is called differently.
The fondant is prepared by dissolving sugar and also glucose syrup (or invert sugar) in water and concentrating by boiling to a remedy including regarding 88% DM. At ambient temperature level, this option is supersaturated with sugar and unpredictable, and if it is rapidly stirred and also cooled, then the excess sugar befalls of the solution in the form of small crystals. Thus, the fondant mass has a solid phase of sugar crystals suspended in a fluid phase including a saturated remedy of “sugars”.
Without mixing and also cooling down big crystals are developed. Pounding in itself provides unsuitable outcomes, since a big amount of latent heat of condensation is released. If the whipped syrup is left warm, formation reduces and also subsequent slow air conditioning brings about the formation of big crystals. Fondant of high quality must be soft in consistency.
Initially, lipstick was prepared using only sugar, which was liquified in water and also focused by steaming to concerning the degree of 88-90% ST. Given that the solubility of sugar at typical temperature levels is only 67%, the syrup with a focus of 90% is very unsteady and crystallizes upon rapid air conditioning, “offering” large crystals.
To conquer this drawback, an additive was made use of that created the inversion of a part of the sugar as well as boosted the total solubility – this made it possible to whip the syrup right into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, a lot more preferably, tartar (tartaric acid) are made use of thus additives. The development of invert sugar from sugar is gone over in an additional chapter, yet here we just keep in mind that such additives break down part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, right into two monosaccharides, dextrose (glucose) and fructose. Fructose is far more soluble (about 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, and also its existence with dextrose permits the focused syrup to be whipped into a lipstick.
This technique of application of the additive is really unstable, considering that the amount of invert sugar created varies significantly depending upon the purity of the sugar, the boiling time and also the hardness of the water made use of. Best results are obtained by adding to the sugar syrup a specific amount of invert sugar, ready independently.
Lipstick, made from sugar and also invert sugar, has a granular framework and also is extremely pleasant in taste (it is rarely used in modern confectionery manufacturing). Glucose (corn) syrup has replaced invert sugar in lipstick formulations; it is less sweet, as well as the visibility of complex carbs manages the development of crystals as well as offers a much more thick lipstick, which does not have a loosened (crunchy) texture.